Pennsylvania 1681 beliefs towards marriage

Colonial North America

In , he was asked to resolve a land dispute between Quaker property owners in the American colony of West New Jersey. After settling the dispute, using his legal knowledge and leadership skills, he was chosen to organize the founding of a Quaker colony in America. Penn petitioned King Charles II for additional land to the west of the Delaware River, and he received a charter for this territory in He was made proprietor and governor of the new colony, which the king titled "Pennsylvania," and he moved there in He immediately began to direct this "holy experiment" by planning the new colony's government, writing its constitution, distributing land to settlers and establishing positive, peaceful relations with the local Indians.

Penn's Letter to the Free Society of Traders was an account of his early activities in Pennsylvania.

William Penn

In some ways, Pennsylvania was a quick success: It attracted many Quakers from England and Europe, as well as members of other groups seeking religious tolerance. However, the colony was also beset by financial troubles, border disputes and political conflict. In , Penn returned to England, where his fortunes rose and fell with changes in royal rule. He lived in Pennsylvania again between and , and revised its constitution during that time; after this stay, he resided in England for the rest of his life, leaving the colony under the management of his secretary, James Logan, and various deputy governors.

In , Penn married his second wife, Hannah Callowhill, with whom he had seven children his first wife had died in His wife assisted him in his proprietorship of Pennsylvania in his later years, especially after he suffered a stroke in Penn died in Ruscombe, in the county of Berkshire, England, on July 30, We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us!

Women's History Resource Guide

Sign up for the Biography newsletters to receive stories daily and weekly about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. At the end of the 18th century, poet William Wordsworth helped found the Romantic movement in English literature. He also wrote "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud. He was canonized by the Catholic Church as a saint in William Blake was a 19th century writer and artist who is regarded as a seminal figure of the Romantic Age. His writings have influenced countless writers and artists through the ages, and he has been deemed both a major poet and an original thinker.

William Kidd is one of the most famous pirates in history, remembered for his execution for piracy on the Indian Ocean. William Shakespeare, often called England's national poet, is considered the greatest dramatist of all time. The Quaker first set sail for the colony that bore his family name on August 30, Of course, long before it meant anything to him, the area had been home to countless generations of Leni Lenape Native Americans.

So before his departure, Penn was advised by the Bishop of London to contact these indigenous people and begin negotiating for some land on which to establish a city. Accordingly, in , he dispatched an olive branch in the form of a letter which was read to Lenape leaders by a translator.

There, he purchased much of the land upon which Philadelphia now sits. Was Voltaire exaggerating?

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If so, to what extent did he embellish or oversimplify reality? No firsthand accounts of this meeting were written down, and the generally agreed-upon details about what actually happened all come from oral histories passed along from generation to generation. Dubbed the Treaty Elm , it was knocked over by violent winds in March Close examination of the rings suggested that the plant would have been well over a century old by the time Penn allegedly met with the Lenape beneath it.

Surrounding land was converted into historic Penn Treaty Park in In his colony, Penn set out to create a safe haven for Quakers and other religious minorities, who would all—ideally—be granted freedom of worship. Privately, he hoped that the revenue obtained from settlers would help pull him out of financial debt. Under Penn, the future Keystone State became the only English colony to refrain from establishing an official church.

Penn perhaps wanted to prevent the kind of mass hysteria that would soon descend over Salem, Massachusetts—as well as preserve relations with the Swedish community—so he took full control of the proceedings. Because neither woman spoke English, Penn saw to it that a translator was provided. Also, in an attempt to secure the fairest possible sentence, he made sure that every single member of the jury hailed from their neighborhood. Finally, he converted the trial into an investigation, prohibited any lawyers from taking part, and appointed himself as the sole judge.

Quaker Life in the 1700s

The official records imply that, when the proceedings began, only one of the so-called witches showed up. Her name was Margaret Mattson, and she pled not guilty. Numerous accusers testified against her, but their claims more or less consisted of hearsay. Afterward, Penn began questioning Mattson. Essentially, the jury found both women guilty of being regarded as witches by their neighbors, but not of actually practicing witchcraft. Later on in , Penn was compelled to return to England on behalf of his colony.

Over half a century earlier, George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore , was given control of a massive land tract, one that stretched from the 40th parallel to the Potomac River, and from the western source of the river to the Atlantic Ocean. Then along came Penn, who unwittingly caused a boundary controversy with the founding of Philadelphia. As he laid the groundwork for the future City of Brotherly Love, he failed to realize that much of it was actually located beneath the 40th parallel.


In , Penn aggravated them further when he obtained a grant in modern-day Delaware. Seeking a compromise, the two men met up in , but the session failed to bear any fruit, prompting both parties to sail for England, where they sought an audience with the Commission for Trade and Plantations. Everything south of Cape Henlopen was given to Maryland.

The Plan for Pennsylvania

Meanwhile, all that lay above the Cape was split vertically, with the eastern half going to William Penn and the western bit handed over to Maryland. In case you were wondering, modern Delaware voted to break off from Pennsylvania on June 15, The event gave birth to an annual holiday called Separation Day , which falls on the second Saturday of June. However, the question of where the Pennsylvania-Maryland border should lie went unresolved.

Cumulatively, William Penn spent less than four years of his life in Pennsylvania. During that interim, the Quaker kept himself busy. In , he added a new published work to his bibliography. Some years before the European Union was founded, Penn called for an international governing body that would consist of 90 voting members to represent all the major and minor European countries.

But, to his dismay, the essay had no discernable effect on European affairs. In politics, the friendships you make can be a blessing one minute and a curse the next. But he soon discovered that being associated with James II had its downsides. Although this inspired much unrest throughout his reign, James II managed to keep the peace by virtue of his Protestant daughter, Mary.

An untimely birth changed all that. In , James II was blessed with a son. The following year, William and Mary were crowned King and Queen. Penn would be arrested multiple times in the next few years, including once when James II sent him a letter, but with some help from his friends he managed to get of trouble. Penn wed his first wife, fellow Quaker Gulielma Springett , in After 32 years of marriage—during which she gave birth to eight children, three of whom reached adulthood—she passed away in Two years later, Penn again tied the knot, this time with Hannah Callowhill, a bride who, at 26, was less than half his age.

Their stay in the New World was destined to be short-lived; financial woes pulled William back to England in Although he suggested that she stay behind, Hannah insisted on joining him for the return journey.

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