Important origin of criminal justice reports


Edited by David P. Farrington and Brandon C. Welsh

Here's a look at some of the exciting technologies that are playing an important role in the criminal justice field today. Big data is an important part of every industry, as the world generates 2. Data collection in criminal justice helps legal experts in several ways. For example, DNA and fingerprints can be stored in databases and used to identify suspects more quickly.

Data can also help law enforcement recognize crime trends and take appropriate action. The system aims to increase transparency and allow a clearer view of crime in the United States through comprehensive data reporting. Often, law enforcement professionals will consult multiple databases to increase the accuracy of their investigations. The rise of big data has also led to rapid identification systems, which allow police officers to quickly see the criminal history of individuals through a basic search. People pulled over while driving without a license can still be identified instantly through an in-car computer search.

Current technologies in the NGI are constantly being updated, and new ones are being added to make the NGI the most comprehensive way to glean up-to-date information on the person being examined. Today, law enforcement can use technology to detect and solve criminal activity happening in the moment. Instead of reacting, these technologies allow law enforcement to be more proactive. Any relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor; partnership inwhich the debtor is a general partner; general partner of the debtor; or corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control.

Introduction

The disputed point between parties in a lawsuit; 2. To send out officially, as in a court issuing an order. A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the same professionals, etc.

An official of the Judicial branch with authority to decide lawsuits brought before courts. Used generically, the term judge may also refer to all judicial officers, including Supreme Court justices. The position of judge. By statute, Congress authorizes the number of judgeships for each district and appellate court.


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The official decision of a court finally resolving the dispute between the parties to the lawsuit. The policy-making entity for the federal court system. A judge body whose presiding officer is the Chief Justice of the United States. The legal authority of a court to hear and decide a certain type of case. It also is used as a synonym for venue, meaning the geographic area over which the court has territorial jurisdiction to decide cases. The group of persons selected to hear the evidence in a trial and render a verdict on matters of fact.

See also grand jury. A judge's directions to the jury before it begins deliberations regarding the factual questions it must answer and the legal rules that it must apply. A legal action started by a plaintiff against a defendant based on a complaint that the defendant failed to perform a legal duty which resulted in harm to the plaintiff. A charge on specific property that is designed to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation. A debtor may still be responsible for a lien after a discharge. A case, controversy, or lawsuit. Participants plaintiffs and defendants in lawsuits are called litigants.

A judicial officer of a district court who conducts initial proceedings in criminal cases, decides criminal misdemeanor cases, conducts many pretrial civil and criminal matters on behalf of district judges, and decides civil cases with the consent of the parties. Section b 2 of the Bankruptcy Code applies a "means test" to determine whether an individual debtor's chapter 7 filing is presumed to be an abuse of the Bankruptcy Code requiring dismissal or conversion of the case generally to chapter The debtor may rebut a presumption of abuse only by a showing of special circumstances that justify additional expenses or adjustments of current monthly income.

Special condition the court imposes to require an individual to undergo evaluation and treatment for a mental disorder. Treatment may include psychiatric, psychological, and sex offense-specific evaluations, inpatient or outpatient counseling, and medication. An invalid trial, caused by fundamental error. When a mistrial is declared, the trial must start again with the selection of a new jury.

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A pretrial motion requesting the court to prohibit the other side from presenting, or even referring to, evidence on matters said to be so highly prejudicial that no steps taken by the judge can prevent the jury from being unduly influenced. A request by a creditor to allow the creditor to take action against the debtor or the debtor's property that would otherwise be prohibited by the automatic stay. A Chapter 7 case in which there are no assets available to satisfy any portion of the creditors' unsecured claims.

No contest. A plea of nolo contendere has the same effect as a plea of guilty, as far as the criminal sentence is concerned, but may not be considered as an admission of guilt for any other purpose. A debt that cannot be eliminated in bankruptcy. Examples include a home mortgage, debts for alimony or child support, certain taxes, debts for most government funded or guaranteed educational loans or benefit overpayments, debts arising from death or personal injury caused by driving while intoxicated or under the influence of drugs, and debts for restitution or a criminal fine included in a sentence on the debtor's conviction of a crime.

Table of contents

Some debts, such as debts for money or property obtained by false pretenses and debts for fraud or defalcation while acting in a fiduciary capacity may be declared nondischargeable only if a creditor timely files and prevails in a nondischargeability action. A trustee's or creditor's objection to the debtor being released from personal liability for certain dischargeable debts. Common reasons include allegations that the debt to be discharged was incurred by false pretenses or that debt arose because of the debtor's fraud while acting as a fiduciary.

A trustee's or creditor's objection to the debtor's attempt to claim certain property as exempt from liquidation by the trustee to creditors.

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A judge's written explanation of the decision of the court. Because a case may be heard by three or more judges in the court of appeals, the opinion in appellate decisions can take several forms. If all the judges completely agree on the result, one judge will write the opinion for all. If all the judges do not agree, the formal decision will be based upon the view of the majority, and one member of the majority will write the opinion.

The judges who did not agree with the majority may write separately in dissenting or concurring opinions to present their views. A concurring opinion agrees with the decision of the majority opinion, but offers further comment or clarification or even an entirely different reason for reaching the same result.

Top 50 Most Important Events in Criminal Justice History

Only the majority opinion can serve as binding precedent in future cases. See also precedent. An opportunity for lawyers to summarize their position before the court and also to answer the judges' questions. In appellate cases, a group of judges usually three assigned to decide the case; 2. In the jury selection process, the group of potential jurors; 3. The list of attorneys who are both available and qualified to serve as court-appointed counsel for criminal defendants who cannot afford their own counsel.

The release of a prison inmate — granted by the U. Parole Commission — after the inmate has completed part of his or her sentence in a federal prison. When the parolee is released to the community, he or she is placed under the supervision of a U.

The Sentencing Reform Act of abolished parole in favor of a determinate sentencing system in which the sentence is set by sentencing guidelines. Now, without the option of parole, the term of imprisonment the court imposes is the actual time the person spends in prison.

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Glossary of Legal Terms | United States Courts

A party who has standing to be heard by the court in a matter to be decided in the bankruptcy case. The debtor, U. A district court may grant each side in a civil or criminal trial the right to exclude a certain number of prospective jurors without cause or giving a reason.

important origin of criminal justice reports Important origin of criminal justice reports
important origin of criminal justice reports Important origin of criminal justice reports
important origin of criminal justice reports Important origin of criminal justice reports
important origin of criminal justice reports Important origin of criminal justice reports
important origin of criminal justice reports Important origin of criminal justice reports

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