Jabir ibn hayyan death certificate


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Draft Card There are military records available for the last name Jaber. View all Jaber military records. You've only scratched the surface of Jaber family history. Discover More. Famous Jaber Family Ancestors Discover the unique achievements of ancestors in your family tree. Explore Your Tree. Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries, and was widely considered second only to Aristotle in knowledge alluded to by his title of "the Second Teacher" in his time.

His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina Avicenna. Al-Farabi argued that religion rendered truth through symbols and persuasion, and, like Plato , saw it as the duty of the philosopher to provide guidance to the state.


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Al-Farabi incorporated the Platonic view, drawing a parallel from within the Islamic context, in that he regarded the ideal state to be ruled by the prophet-imam, instead of the philosopher-king envisaged by Plato. Al-Farabi argued that the ideal state was the city-state of Medina when it was governed by the prophet Muhammad as its head of state, as he was in direct communion with Allah whose law was revealed to him. Al-Farabi wrote a short treatise "On Vacuum", where he thought about the nature of the existence of void.

He also may have carried out the first experiments concerning the existence of vacuum, in which he investigated handheld plungers in water. His final conclusion was that air's volume can expand to fill available space, and he suggested that the concept of perfect vacuum was incoherent. Wrote Social Psychology and Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Virtuous City , which were the first treatises to deal with social psychology.

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He stated that "an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals," and that it is the "innate disposition of every man to join another human being or other men in the labor he ought to perform. In his treatise On the Cause of Dreams , which appeared as chapter 24 of his Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Ideal City , he distinguished between dream interpretation and the nature and causes of dreams.

The main influence on al-Farabi's philosophy was the neo-Aristotelian tradition of Alexandria.

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A prolific writer, he is credited with over one hundred works. Amongst these are a number of prolegomena to philosophy, commentaries on important Aristotelian works such as the Nicomachean Ethics as well as his own works.

The Jabirian corpus

His ideas are marked by their coherency, despite drawing together of many different philosophical disciplines and traditions. Some other significant influences on his work were the planetary model of Ptolemy and elements of Neo-Platonism, particularly metaphysics and practical or political philosophy which bears more resemblance to Plato's Republic than Aristotle's Politics. Zimmermann published in Farabi had a great influence on Maimonides , the most important Jewish thinker of the middle ages. Maimonides wrote in Arabic a Treatise on logic , the celebrated Maqala fi sina at al-mantiq.

In a wonderfully concise way, the work treats of the essentials of Aristotelian logic in the light of comments made by the Persian philosophers: Avicenna and above all al-Farabi. However, he tried to gather the ideas of Plato and Aristotle in his book "The gathering of the ideas of the two philosophers". According to Adamson, his work was singularly directed towards the goal of simultaneously reviving and reinventing the Alexandrian philosophical tradition, to which his Christian teacher, Yuhanna bin Haylan belonged.

His success should be measured by the honorific title of "the second master" of philosophy Aristotle being the first , by which he was known. Adamson also says that he does not make any reference to the ideas of either al-Kindi or his contemporary, Abu Bakr al-Razi , which clearly indicates that he did not consider their approach to Philosophy as a correct or viable one. In contrast to al-Kindi , who considered the subject of metaphysics to be God, al-Farabi believed that it was concerned primarily with being qua being that is, being in and of itself , and this is related to God only to the extent that God is a principle of absolute being.

Al-Kindi's view was, however, a common misconception regarding Greek philosophy amongst Muslim intellectuals at the time, and it was for this reason that Avicenna remarked that he did not understand Aristotle's Metaphysics properly until he had read a prolegomenon written by al-Farabi. Al-Farabi's cosmology is essentially based upon three pillars: Aristotelian metaphysics of causation, highly developed Plotinian emanational cosmology and the Ptolemaic astronomy.

In his model, the universe is viewed as a number of concentric circles; the outermost sphere or "first heaven", the sphere of fixed stars, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury and finally, the Moon. At the centre of these concentric circles is the sub-lunar realm which contains the material world. Each of these circles represent the domain of the secondary intelligences symbolized by the celestial bodies themselves , which act as causal intermediaries between the First Cause in this case, God and the material world. Furthermore these are said to have emanated from God, who is both their formal and efficient cause.

The process of emanation begins metaphysically, not temporally with the First Cause, whose principal activity is self-contemplation. And it is this intellectual activity that underlies its role in the creation of the universe. The First Cause, by thinking of itself, "overflows" and the incorporeal entity of the second intellect "emanates" from it. Like its predecessor, the second intellect also thinks about itself, and thereby brings its celestial sphere in this case, the sphere of fixed stars into being, but in addition to this it must also contemplate upon the First Cause, and this causes the "emanation" of the next intellect.

The cascade of emanation continues until it reaches the tenth intellect, beneath which is the material world. And as each intellect must contemplate both itself and an increasing number of predecessors, each succeeding level of existence becomes more and more complex. It should be noted that this process is based upon necessity as opposed to will. In other words, God does not have a choice whether or not to create the universe, but by virtue of His own existence, He causes it to be. This view also suggests that the universe is eternal, and both of these points were criticized by al-Ghazzali in his attack on the philosophers.

The Arabic Origin of Summa Perfectionis Magisterii

In his discussion of the First Cause or God , al-Farabi relies heavily on negative theology. He says that it cannot be known by intellectual means, such as dialectical division or definition, because the terms used in these processes to define a thing constitute its substance. Therefore if one was to define the First Cause, each of the terms used would actually constitute a part of its substance and therefore behave as a cause for its existence, which is impossible as the First Cause is uncaused; it exists without being caused.

Equally, he says it cannot be known according to genus and differentia, as its substance and existence are different from all others, and therefore it has no category to which it belongs. If this were the case, then it would not be the First Cause, because something would be prior in existence to it, which is also impossible. This would suggest that the more philosophically simple a thing is, the more perfect it is.

And based on this observation, Adamson says it is possible to see the entire hierarchy of al-Farabi's cosmology according to classification into genus and species. Each succeeding level in this structure has as its principal qualities multiplicity and deficiency, and it is this ever-increasing complexity that typifies the material world. Human beings are unique in al-Farabi's vision of the universe because they stand between two worlds: the "higher", immaterial world of the celestial intellects and universal intelligibles, and the "lower", material world of generation and decay; they inhabit a physical body, and so belong to the "lower" world, but they also have a rational capacity, which connects them to the "higher" realm.

Each level of existence in al-Farabi's cosmology is characterized by its movement towards perfection, which is to become like the First Cause; a perfect intellect. Human perfection or "happiness" , then, is equated with constant intellection and contemplation. Al-Farabi divides intellect into four categories: potential, actual, acquired and the Agent.


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  • The first three are the different states of the human intellect and the fourth is the Tenth Intellect the moon in his emanational cosmology. The potential intellect represents the capacity to think, which is shared by all human beings, and the actual intellect is an intellect engaged in the act of thinking. By thinking, al-Farabi means abstracting universal intelligibles from the sensory forms of objects which have been apprehended and retained in the individual's imagination.

    This motion from potentiality to actuality requires the Agent Intellect to act upon the retained sensory forms; just as the Sun illuminates the physical world to allow us to see, the Agent Intellect illuminates the world of intelligibles to allow us to think.

    This illumination removes all accident such as time, place, quality and physicality from them, converting them into primary intelligibles, which are logical principles such as "the whole is greater than the part". The human intellect, by its act of intellection, passes from potentiality to actuality, and as it gradually comprehends these intelligibles, it is identified with them as according to Aristotle, by knowing something, the intellect becomes like it.

    Because the Agent Intellect knows all of the intelligibles, this means that when the human intellect knows all of them, it becomes associated with the Agent Intellect's perfection and is known as the acquired Intellect. While this process seems mechanical, leaving little room for human choice or volition, Reisman says that al-Farabi is committed to human voluntarism. This takes place when man, based on the knowledge he has acquired, decides whether to direct himself towards virtuous or unvirtuous activities, and thereby decides whether or not to seek true happiness.

    And it is by choosing what is ethical and contemplating about what constitutes the nature of ethics, that the actual intellect can become "like" the active intellect, thereby attaining perfection.

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    Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber), Died C.E.

    It is only by this process that a human soul may survive death, and live on in the afterlife. According to al-Farabi, the afterlife is not the personal experience commonly conceived of by religious traditions such as Islam and Christianity.

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    Any individual or distinguishing features of the soul are annihilated after the death of the body; only the rational faculty survives and then, only if it has attained perfection , which becomes one with all other rational souls within the agent intellect and enters a realm of pure intelligence. Henry Corbin compares this eschatology with that of the Ismaili Neo-Platonists, for whom this process initiated the next grand cycle of the universe. However, Deborah Black mentions we have cause to be skeptical as to whether this was the mature and developed view of al-Farabi, as later thinkers such as Ibn Tufayl , Averroes and Ibn Bajjah would assert that he repudiated this view in his commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics, which has been lost to modern experts.

    In his treatment of the human soul, al-Farabi draws on a basic Aristotelian outline, which is informed by the commentaries of later Greek thinkers. He says it is composed of four faculties: The appetitive the desire for, or aversion to an object of sense , the sensitive the perception by the senses of corporeal substances , the imaginative the faculty which retains images of sensible objects after they have been perceived, and then separates and combines them for a number of ends , and the rational , which is the faculty of intellection.

    It is the last of these which is unique to human beings and distinguishes them from plants and animals.

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